Cancer can start any place in the body. It starts when cells (tế bào) grow out of control (ngoài kiểm soát) and crowd out (chiếm chỗ) normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should.
Cancer is not just one disease (Ung thư ko chỉ là một bịnh) .
The cells in our bodies all have certain jobs to do Những tế bào trong cơ thể chúng ta tất cả có một số việc nào đó để làm) . Normal cells divide in an orderly way (Những tế bào bình thường phân chia theo một cách trật tự) . They die when they are worn out or damaged, and new cells take their place(Chúng chết khi chúng hao mòn hay hư hỏng, và tế bào mới thay thế chúng) . Cancer is when the cells start to grow out of control (Ung thư xảy ra khi những tế bào này bắt đầu phát triển ngoài kiểm soát). The cancer cells keep on growing and making new cells (Những tế bào ung thư này tiếp tục phát triển và tạo thêm tế bào mới) . They crowd out normal cells (Chúng CHIẾM CHỖ của tế bào bình thường) . This causes problems in the part of the body where the cancer started (Điều này tạo ra vấn đề/khó khăn/bịnh tại phần của cơ thể mà ung thư bắt đầu) .
Some cancers grow and spread fast (Một vài UT phát triển và lan nhanh) . Others grow more slowly (Những UT khác phát triển chậm They also respond to treatment in different ways (Chúng cũng đáp ứng với điều trị theo nhiều cách khác nhau) . Some types of cancer are best treated with surgery (Một vài loại UT trị tốt bằng mổ xẻ) ; others respond better to drugs called chemotherapy (key-mo-THER-uh-pee) (Một số khác đáp ứng tốt với thuốc được gọi là hóa trị) . Often 2 or more treatments are used to get the best results.(Thường 2 hơn nhiều cách điều trị được dùng để có kế quả toots0 .
Most cancers form a lump called a tumor or a growth(Phần lớn UT tạo nên một một khối u . But not all lumps are cancer(Nhưng ko phải mọi khối u là UT) . Doctors take out a piece of the lump and look at it to find out if it’s cancer. Lumps that are not cancer are called benign (be-NINE) (Khôi u ko phải UT gọi là u lành) . Lumps that are cancer are called malignant (muh-LIG-nunt)(Khối u là UT gọi là u ác tính)) .
What stage is the cancer?
The doctor also needs to know if and how far the cancer has spread from where it started. This is called the cancer stage. You may have heard other people say that their cancer was stage 1 or stage 2. Knowing the stage of the cancer helps the doctor decide what type of treatment is best.
The most common treatments for cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation (ray-dee-A- shun).
What treatment is best for me?
Your cancer treatment will depend on what’s best for you. Some cancers respond better to surgery; others respond better to chemo or radiation. Knowing the type of cancer you have is the first step toward knowing which treatments will work best for you.
People with cancer often ask, “What did I do wrong?” or “Why me?” Doctors don’t know for sure what causes cancer. When doctors can’t give a cause, people may come up with their own ideas about why it happened.
It can be hard to talk about cancer, even with the people you love. Learning you have cancer can stir many feelings, such as sadness, anger, and fear. Sometimes it’s hard to know how you’re feeling, much less talk to others about it.
When you talk to them, explain what kind of cancer you have and how it will be treated. Let them know that no one can catch it from you.
Allow friends and family to help you, and tell them what kind of help you need. If you need a ride to the doctor’s office or hospital, let them know. If you need help around the house, let them know that, too. There may be times when you’re not sure what you need. That’s OK. Just let them know you aren’t sure, but you’ll let them know when you are.
Tell the people who are closest to you how you feel. This may not be easy, but it can be a very important way to get the support you need when you need it most. If you have trouble talking about your feelings, you might find a support group or a mental health counselor to help you.
If you have friends or family who tell you to “cheer up” when you’re not feeling good, it’s OK to ask them to just listen, and not tell you what to do. Sometimes you need to talk about what’s going on without getting advice in return.
If some people are not OK with talking about your feelings, don’t be upset. Try talking to others who might listen.
You may not be able to do things you were doing before you got cancer. If that’s true, let your family and friends know.
It’s best for your family and friends to keep doing the things they did before you had cancer. They should not feel guilty about doing this.
If you’re feeling sad or depressed, talk to your doctor, nurse, or religious leader. You can also call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345.
“The first time you say, ‘I have cancer’ out loud is the hardest. The more you say it, the easier it becomes to say the words. The more I talked about my breast cancer, the easier it was for me to accept what I was going through. I found it odd that I sometimes had to cheer up those I was telling about my cancer.” – Helen, cancer survivor
Cancer words you may hear
These are words that you may hear your cancer care team use.
If you have questions about cancer or need help finding resources in your area, please call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345. We're there when you need us – 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.